By Frederick E. Hoxie
"This is a vital ebook. within the latter 19th century, varied and influential components in white the US mixed forces to settle the 'Indian query' via assimilation. . . . the consequences have been the primarily treaty-breaking Dawes Act of 1887, comparable laws, and doubtful courtroom judgements. Schoolteachers and missionaries have been dispatched to the reservations en masse. Eventual 'citizenship' with out useful rights used to be given local american citizens; the Indians misplaced two-thirds of reservation land because it had existed prior to the assimilationist crusade. . . . With perception and ability that move well past craft, Hoxie has admirably outlined matters and reasons, positioned economic/political/social interplay into cogent point of view, introduced quite a few Anglo and Indian members and organisations to existence, and set forth very important lessons."-Choice. "This major examine of Indian-white family in the course of a posh time in nationwide politics merits shut attention."-American Indian Quarterly. "Important and intellectually demanding . . . This quantity is going a long way to fill a wide hole within the historical past of usa Indian policy."-Journal of yank historical past. Frederick E. Hoxie is director of the D'Arcy McNickle middle for the heritage of the yankee Indian on the Newberry Library. He coedited (with Joan Mark) E. Jane Gay's With the Nez Perc?s: Alice Fletcher within the box, 1889-92 (Nebraska 1981).
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Additional resources for A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920
They could expect change to occur in a 20 The Appeal of Assimilation “positive” direction, and the principal source of these changes would be a new economic system. Shifting property relationships were the engines that produced improvements in other areas of life. Morgan’s position was ambiguous on a number of crucial points. How quickly could a people move from one stage to another? How wide was the gap between the “civilized” and “uncivilized” world? How long would it take for “barbarians” to adopt private property?
White westerners were angered by his attacks on agency corruption as well as his reluctance to use force to subdue unruly tribes. The army resented his opposition to their proposal to transfer the Indian Ofﬁce to the War Department. And the churches felt betrayed by his decision to suspend their control over agency appointments. At the end of 1879 all of these groups now joined by Standing Bear’s excited supporters trained their ﬁre on the secretary. Schurz’s most outspoken critic was Helen Hunt Jackson.
More . . ”41 On the question of land allotment, Fletcher rejected Powell’s cautious recommendations. She urged Congress to begin assigning Indians individual tracts of land as soon as possible. The major’s principal contact had been with the gathering tribes of the Great Basin. His observations of these people led him to conclude that individual landownership while desirable should not be forced on unwilling subjects until after they had begun to live communally. Both Fletcher’s experience and her attitude were quite different.
A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920 by Frederick E. Hoxie