By Deborah G. Mayo, Rachelle D. Hollander
Discussions of technology and values in probability administration have mostly serious about how values input into arguments approximately hazards, that's, problems with applicable chance. as a substitute this quantity concentrates on how values input into gathering, examining, speaking, and comparing the facts of dangers, that's, problems with the acceptability of facts of possibility. through concentrating on applicable facts, this quantity avoids boundaries to development. One barrier assumes that facts of probability is basically an issue of aim clinical information and hence uncontroversial. the opposite assumes that facts of probability, being "just" a question of values, isn't really amenable to reasoned critique. Denying either extremes, this quantity argues for a extra optimistic end: realizing the interrelations of medical and price concerns allows a serious scrutiny of possibility checks and higher public deliberation approximately social offerings. The members, unique philosophers, coverage analysts, and typical and social scientists, study environmental and scientific controversies, and assumptions underlying perspectives approximately chance overview and the medical and statistical versions utilized in chance administration.
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Extra resources for Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management (Environmental Ethics and Science Policy Series)
1986). Tradeoffs. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Winell, M. (1975). " Ambio 4(1): 34-42. Wisner, B. (1976). Man-Made Famine in Eastern Kenya: The Interrelationship of Environment and Development. Discussion Paper, no. 96. : Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, World Commission on Environment and Development (1987). Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press. 2 Acceptable Evidence in a Pluralistic Society SHEILA JASANOFF In recent years policy analysts have come to recognize cross-national comparison as a technique for illuminating noteworthy or desirable elements of decisions in particular national contexts (Heidenheimer, Heclo, and Adams 1975).
In trying to cope, some people seek spiritual explanation; others look to cults for the comfort of simplistic explanations (Wenk 1986, p. 8). Hazards that threaten basic human values are as amorphous as they are profoundly troubling. Such values continually shape the directions of science, the unfolding of technological applications, and the institutions that manage both. Equally certain is that technology is a major driving force in shaping social values. Consider the impacts of the automobile on families, contraceptives on sexual mores, life-extending technologies on religious beliefs, and computers and informational banks on privacy.
13). Divergences like these fed fears among the public and some agency officials that risk assessment could be willfully manipulated to put a veneer of false precision on inherently arbitrary policy choices (Peterson 1985). Agency officials were quick to realize that ill-considered uses of risk estimates could threaten the legitimacy of their policy decisions. Yet their response, ironically, was not to retreat from quantitative risk assessment but to insist on still greater precision. Agency risk analysts, for instance, embraced the idea that the uncertainty surrounding each risk estimate should be represented in numerical form.
Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management (Environmental Ethics and Science Policy Series) by Deborah G. Mayo, Rachelle D. Hollander