By Jian Kang
Acoustics is a big difficulty in lots of lengthy areas, resembling highway or railway tunnels, underground/railway stations, corridors, concourses and concrete streets. the categorical difficulties of such irregularly formed areas, starting from noise toxins in streets and tunnels to negative speech intelligibility of public handle structures in railway stations should not handled by means of vintage room acoustic theory.
This cutting-edge exposition of acoustics of lengthy areas offers the basics of acoustic thought and calculation formulae for lengthy areas in addition to giving directions for functional layout
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Additional info for Acoustics of long spaces : theory and design guidance
A. Principles and Applications of Room Acoustics, Vol. II. Applied Science Publishers, Barking, England, 1982. BERANEK L. L. Acoustic Measurements. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1949. AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI). Method for measuring the intelligibility of speech over communications system. 2. ANSI, 1989 (Revised 1999). AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI). Methods for the calculation of the articulation index. 5. ANSI, 1997. HOUTGAST T. and STEENEKEN H. J. M. The modulation transfer function in room acoustics as a predictor of speech intelligibility.
STRéM S. and SéRSDAL S. Calculating the acoustical room response by use of a ray tracing technique. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1968, 8, 118ÿ125. BORISH J. Extension of the image model to arbitrary polyhedra. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1984, 75, 1827ÿ1836. LEE H. and LEE B. An ecient algorithm for image method technology. Applied Acoustics, 1988, 24, 87ÿ115. KULOWSKI A. Algorithmic representation of the ray tracing technique. Applied Acoustics, 1984, 18, 449ÿ469. LEHNERT H.
For calculation convenience, the image sources are divided into four groups, namely A1, A2, B1 and B2. Groups A1 and A2 correspond to the re¯ections between two facËades, and groups B1 and B2 include the re¯ection from the street ground. 15, the energy from an image source to a receiver R at Rx , Ry , Rz can be determined easily. First, consider an image source i i 1 F F F I) in ACOUSTIC THEORIES OF LONG SPACES 47 group A1. For odd values of i the energy to the receiver is 1 di i 1=2 i ÿ 1=2 ÿMdi t 1 ÿ A 1 ÿ B e Ei t c 4di2 2:40 where A and B are the absorption coecient of facËades A and B, respectively.
Acoustics of long spaces : theory and design guidance by Jian Kang