By Frank J. Dixon
The fiftieth quantity in a monographic sequence on immunology. one of the subject matters coated listed below are avian T-cell ontogeny, adoptive move of human lymphoid cells to significantly immuno-deficient mice and histamine-releasing elements and cytokine-dependent activation of basophils and mast cells.
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Extra resources for Advances in Immunology 50
Studies of incompetent MHC alleles will be very valuable in determining the precise interaction of the receptor with the MHC molecule that leads to stimulation b y Vbse. An alternative interpretation of these studies is given in Section IX. Although there are I-A molecules that are incompetent to present certain Vbse to certain T cell receptors, it is fair to state that there are no known examples of I-E or HLA-DR molecules that fail to present Vbse or bacterial toxic mitogens. Furthermore, it has been shown that E a paired with the AP chain of an incompetent I-A molecule generates a competent allele, implicating polymorphic regions of the A a chain in interaction with Vbse (Anderson and David, 1989).
It has been estimated that as little as one molecule of SEA per 100 cells can elicit a response in some individual humans. This suggests some catalytic or enzymatic activity imparted by SEs. This property must be explained before one can be satisfied with the working model or its replacement. We have recently proposed an alternative to the working model to account for these anomalies, two of which apply to SEs rather than to self Vbse. This modification is shown in schematic form in Fig. 4. It proposes that SEs actually bind to self Vbse.
This is the key to the puzzle. Recent data suggest that Vbse are encoded by endogenous retroviruses of the Mtv family. At least 30 different Mtv genomes have been identified in the mouse genome. Several of these have already been linked to Vbse, and Mtv transfections confer Vbse function on these cells. Thus, it seems certain that a product of these genomes encodes Vbse. However, the nature of this product, its binding properties, and its polymorphism remain to be determined. A critical issue is the presence of Vbse in species other than the mouse.
Advances in Immunology 50 by Frank J. Dixon