# M. Woolfson's An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography PDF

By M. Woolfson

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**Example text**

This convention is interpreted as meaning that if one coordinate is + £ then the other is —t. The comma within the open-circle symbol indicates that if the symmetry operation is carried out on a group of objects and not just on a point, then the groups represented by O and 0 are enantiomorphically related. The diagram on the right-hand side shows the distribution of symmetry elements. 35 is taken from the International Tables and, reading across the page, is (i) the crystal system, (ii) the point group, (iii) symmetry associated with a, b and c axes (where appropriate), (iv) an assigned space-group number and (v) the space-group name according to the Hermann-Mauguin notation with, underneath, the older and somewhat outmoded Schoenflies notation.

The second operation, involving the plane P 2 , similarly generates a point (x — £, f — y, z + {-). 9 Space groups 23 These coordinates show that there are two other glide planes at y = f and y = | associated with displacements |c + £a and ^c — ^a, respectively. Rotation axes (2, 3, 4, 6) The modes of operation of rotation axes are shown in fig. 7; the new feature which arises for a repeated pattern is the generation of subsidiary axes of symmetry other than those put in initially. This may be seen in fig.

1 Diffraction from a one-dimensional array of atoms 53 Fig. 3. Phase-vector diagram showing the formation of maxima and minima of intensity for a row of four scatterers. 5b) We may note that this ratio falls oflf rapidly with increasing m and that for large n all the subsidiary peaks of appreciable magnitude are very close to the main maximum.

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